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Macedonian Veterinary Review


p-ISSN 1409-7621
e-ISSN 1857-7415

Co-publishing with:
De Gruyter

Abstract / References

Original Scientific Article
Published on: 15 March 2019

Anticoagulant resistance in Synanthropic rodents in the Stara Zagora region, Bulgaria
Georgi G. Zhelev1, Kojcho P. Koev1, Vladimir D. Dimitrov2, Vladimir S. Petrov1
1Department of Epidemiology, Infectious Diseases and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakian University, Stara Zagora 6000, Bulgaria
2Veterinarian, Varna 9000, Bulgaria


The anticoagulant rodenticides are the most commonly used toxicants to control rodents nowadays. Therefore, developing resistance to them is an issue of great importance for pest control. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of synanthropic rodents in the Stara Zagora region, Bulgaria to some of the most significant first (warfarin and coumatetralyl) and second (bromadiolone and brodifacoum) generation anticoagulants. Resistance tests were carried out by a standard protocol using lethal feeding period tests and blood clotting response tests according to the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (Paris, France) standard. Studies were performed on 278 wild synanthropic rodents – 67 house mice (Mus musculus), 153 roof rats (Rattus rattus) and 58 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus). The rodents belonged to 11 populations inhabiting 9 animal farms in the region of Stara Zagora, Southern Bulgaria. High-level resistance to warfarinwas established in 100% of surveyed house mice and 92.1% of roof rats. Resistance to coumatetralyl was registered in 62.5% of the tested roof rats. Low-level resistance to bromadiolone was found in 38.5% of the surveyed roof rats and 23.1% of house mice. There was no resistance registered in brown rats. The sensitivity of all three rodent species to the strategic anticoagulant brodifacoum was high, and there were no signs of resistance. The results proved the resistance among synanthropic rodents and led to the conclusion that the resistance in house mice and roof rats to warfarin and coumatetralyl tends to be the main issue in pest control.
Key words: resistance, anticoagulant rodenticides, synantropic rodents

Mac Vet Rev 2019; 42 (1): 61-70
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