Sample menu:

Macedonian Veterinary Review


p-ISSN 1409-7621
e-ISSN 1857-7415

Co-publishing with:
De Gruyter

Abstract / References

Original Scientific Article

Use of hormonal and ultrasonographic examinations to determine the fetal number in Bulgarian local goats
Manol Karadaev1, Ivan Fasulkov1, Radina Vasileva2, Nasko Vasilev1
1Department of Obstetrics, Reproduction and Reproductive Disorders, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6015 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
2Student of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6015 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


The purpose of the present study was to determine the fetal number in goats by using hormonal and ultrasonographic examinations. The experiments were conducted with 106 clinically healthy Bulgarian local goats, 1.5 to 7 years of age, weighing 35-52 kg. Hormonal examinations were performed on 24 goats. Serum progesterone concentrations were measured during a 7 days interval, between 21-63 day of pregnancy, and during a 14 days interval until the 133rd day of pregnancy. Ultrasound examinations were performed on 82 goats with a multi-frequency linear transducer (5.0-12.0 MHz). All animals were studied once during an interval of 7 days transrectally (21-28 day, 29-35 day, 36-42 day) and transabdominally (43-49 day, 50-56 day, 57-63 day), respectively. The accuracy of determining the number of singleton and multiple pregnancies by hormonal analysis were 51%, 58%, 69% and 47%, 52%, 62%, respectively. The accuracy of ultrasonography to determine the number of fetuses is highest in singletons 76.18%, followed by twins 72.56% and the lowest in triplets and more fetuses 21.43%. Highest accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive diagnosis were established in the period 43-49 day of pregnancy (P<0.05). The obtained results show that the most appropriate period is between 42 and 49 day of pregnancy for determination of the fetal number in Bulgarian local goats using ultrasonography.
Key words: goats, ultrasonography, fetal number, progesterone

Mac Vet Rev 2019; 42 (1): i-xiii
[ PDF Free Article ] pdf Linija          
Available Online First: 3 November 2018

1. Dawson, L.J., Sahlu, T., Hart, S.P., Detweiler, G., Gipson, T.A., Theh, T.H., Henry, G.A., Bahr, R.J. (1994). Determination of fetal numbers in Alpine does by real time ultrasonography. Small Rumin Res. 14, 225-231.

2. Erdogan, G. (2012). Ultrasonic assessment during pregnancy in goats – a review. Reprod Dom Anim. 47, 157-163.

3. Yotov, S. (2007). Diagnostics of early pregnancy and determination of fetal sex and number in sheep. PhD thesis, Stara Zagora. [in Bulgarian]

4. Capezzuto, A., Chelini, M.O.M., Felippe, E.C.G., Olivera, C.A. (2008). Correlation between serum and fecal concentration of reproductive steroids throughout gestation in goats. Anim Reprod Sci. 103, 78-86.

5. Medan, M.S., Abd El-Aty, A.M. (2010). Advances in ultrasonography and its application in domestic ruminants and other farm animals' reproduction. J Adv Res. 1, 123-128.

6. Karen, A., Samir, H., Ashmawy, T., El-Sayed, M. (2014). Accuracy of B-mode ultrasonography for diagnosing pregnancy and determination of fetal numbers in different breeds of goats. Anim Reprod Sci. 147, 25-31.

7. Medan, М., Watanabe, G., Absy, G., Sasaki, K., Sharawy, S., Taya, K. (2004). Early pregnancy diagnosis by means of ultrasonography as a method of improving reproductive efficiency in goats. J Reprod Dev. 50, 391-397.

8. Suguna, K., Mehrotra, S., Agarwal, S.K., Hoque, M., Singh, S.K., Shanker, U., Sarath, T. (2008). Early pregnancy diagnosis and embryonic and fetal development using real time B mode ultrasound in goats. Small Rumin Res. 80, 80-86.

9. Yotov, S. (2011). Determination of fetal numbers and sex. In: S. Yotov (Ed.), Application of B-mode echography in sheep reproduction (pp. 78-88). Stara Zagora: Kota Publishing House. [in Bulgarian]

10. Dawson, L. J. (2002). Pregnancy diagnosis in goats. Proceedings of the 17th Annual Goat Field Day (pp. 41-44), Langston University, Langston.

11. Lavoir, M.C., Taverne, M.A.M. (1989). The diagnosis of pregnancy and pseudo pregnancy, and the determination of foetal numbers of goats, by means of real time ultrasound scanning. In: M. A. M. Taverne, A. H. Willemse (Eds.), Diagnostic ultrasound and animal reproduction (pp. 89-96). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publisher.

12. Vinoles-Gil, C., Gonzales-Bulnes, A., Martin, G.B., Zlatar, F.S., Sale, S. (2010). Sheep and goats. In: L. Des Coteaux, J. Colloton, G. Gnemmi (Eds.), Ruminant and camelid reproductive ultrasonography (pp. 181-210). Hong Kong: Willey- Blackwell.

13. Karen, A., Kovacsi, P., Beckers, J.F., Szenci, O. (2001). Pregnancy diagnosis in sheep: review of the most practical methods. Acta Vet Brno 70, 115-126.

14. Koker, A., Ince, D., Sezik, M. (2012). The accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography for early pregnancy diagnosis in Saanen goats: a pilot study. Small Rumin. Res. 105, 277-281.

15. Abdelghafar, R.M., Bakhiet, A.O., Ahmed, B.H. (2007). B-mode real-time ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and fetal number in Saanen goats. J Anim Vet Adv. 6, 702-705.

16. Padilla-Rivas, G.R., Sohnrey, B., Holtz, W. (2005). Early pregnancy detection by real time ultrasonography in Boer goats. Small Rumin Res. 58, 87-92.

17. Gearhart, M.A., Wingfield, W.E., Knight, A.P., Smith, J.A, Dorgatz, D.A., Boon, J.A., Stokes, C.A. (1988). Real-time ultrasonography for determining pregnancy status and viable fetal numbers in ewes. Theriogenology 30, 323-337.

18. Martin, S. W., Meek, A. H., Willeberg, P. (1987). Measurement of disease frequency and production. In: S. W. Martin, A. H. Meek, P. Willeberg (Eds.), Veterinary epidemiology: principles and methods (pp. 63-71). USA: Iowa State University Press.

19. Gonzalez, F., Cabrera, F., Batista, М., Rodriguez, N., Alamo, D., Sulon, J., Beckers, J.F. (2004). A comparison of diagnosis of pregnancy in the goat via transrectal ultrasound scanning, progesterone and pregnancy associated glycoprotein assays. Theriogenology 62, 1108-1115.

20. Kulcsár, M., Dankó, G., Magdy, H.G., Reiczigel, J., Forgach, T., Proháczik, A., Delavaud, C., Magyar, K., Chilliard, Y., Solti, L., Huszenicza, G. (2006). Pregnancy stage and number of fetuses may influence maternal plasma leptin in ewes. Acta Vet Hung. 54, 221-234.

21. Muller, T., Schibert, H., Schwab, M. (2003). Early prediction of fetal number in sheep based on peripheral plasma progesterone concentration and season of year. Vet Rec. 1, 137-138.

22. See, K., Bailer, A.J., Behnke, E.J., Baker, R.S., Clark, K.E., Russell, P.T. (2007). Predicting pregnancy status and fetal number in time-dated pregnant ewes using serum progesterone and ultrasound. Res J Anim Sci. 1, 65-71.

23. Boscos, C.M., Samartzi, F.C., Lymberopoulos, A.G., Stefanakis, A., Belibasaki, S. (2003). Assessment of progesterone concentration using enzyme immunoassay for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep and goats. Reprod Dom Anim. 38, 170-174.

24. Chentouf, M., Bister, J.L., Boulanouar, B. (2011). Reproduction characteristics of North Moroccan indigenous goats. Small Rumin Res. 98, 185-188.

25. Gaafar, K.M., Gabr, M.K., Teleb, D.F. (2005). The hormonal profile during the estrous cycle and gestation in Damascus goats. Small Rumin Res. 57, 85-93.

26. Khan, J.R., Ludri, R.S. (2002). Hormonal profiles during periparturient period in single and twin fetus bearing goats. Asian Aust J Anim Sci. 15, 346-351.

27. Sousa, N.M., Garbayo, J.M., Figueiredo, J.R., Sulon, J., Goncalves, P.B.D., Beckers, J.F. (1999). Pregnancy associated glycoprotein and progesterone profiles during pregnancy and postpartum in native goats from the north-east of Brazil. Small Rumin Res. 32, 137-147.

28. Gordon, I. (1997). Pregnancy testing in sheep. In: I. Gordon (Ed.), Controlled reproduction in sheep and goats (pp. 241-259). New York: CABI Publishing.

29. Amer, H.A. (2010). Ultrasonographic assessment of early pregnancy diagnosis, fetometry and sex determination in goats. Anim Reprod Sci. 117, 226-231.

30. Abdelghafar, R. M., Ibrahim, R. M., Abdelharimi, S. M., Ahmed, B. H. (2010). Sensitivity and specificity of real-time ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and litter size in Saanen goats (Capra Hircus). Proceedings of the 14th Sci. Cong. Fac. Vet. Med. Assiut Univ. November 30 – December 02, (pp. 391-402), Egypt.

31. Karen, A., Szabados, K., Reiczigel, J., Beckers, J.F., Szenci, O. (2004). Accuracy of transrectal ultrasonography for determination of pregnancy in sheep: effect of fasting and handling of the animals. Theriogenology 61, 1291-1298.





cope This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics.
Creative Commons License
The all content of the Journal "Mac Vet Rev", except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.