Clinical Reviews
Evaluation of video-otoscopic, radiographic and computed tomographic examinations of cats and dogs with ear diseases
Kurtulus Parlak*,
Mustafa Yalcin,
Hanifi Erol,
Eyüp Tolga Akyol,
Elgin Orcum Uzunlu,
Nuriza Zamirbekova,
Mustafa Arican

Mac Vet Rev 2021; 44 (1): 95 - 101

10.2478/macvetrev-2021-0013

Received: 25 August 2020

Received in revised form: 19 December 2020

Accepted: 08 February 2121

Available Online First: 26 February 2021

Published on: 15 March 2021

Correspondence: Kurtulus Parlak, kparlak@selcuk.edu.tr

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of imaging techniques (video-otoscopy-VO, radiography-RTG, computed tomography-CT) in diagnosing ear diseases in cats and dogs. Seven cats and thirteen dogs diagnosed with ear diseases were used for the research. Clinical examination, VO, RTG and CT were performed. Three (42.9%) unilateral otitis externa (OE), three (42.9%) unilateral otitis media (OM), and one (14.2%) bilateral otitis media (OM) with OE were diagnosed in 7 cats. Five (38.4%) unilateral OE, one (7.7%) unilateral OM, four (30.8%) bilateral OE, and three (23.1%) bilateral OM with OE were diagnosed in 13 dogs. All diagnostic methods were determined to be highly efficient for the specified diagnosis. VO and RTG were confirmed as sufficiently effective for the diagnosis of OE. OE plays a major role in the etiopathogenesis of OM, and for this reason, RTG and CT are required diagnostic methods for this condition.

Keywords: diagnostic imaging, ear diseases, cat, dog


References

  1. Hill, P.B., Lo, A., Eden, C.A. (2006). Survey of the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of dermatological diseases in small animals in general practice. Vet Rec. 158(16): 533-539. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.158.16.533 PMid:16632525
  2. Kamaljyoti, Sharma, A.K., Filia, G., Sharma, S. (2017). Studies on Malassezia infection in otitis external of dogs. J Anim Res. 7, 197-200. https://doi.org/10.5958/2277-940X.2017.00027.4
  3. Cristina, R.T., Degi, J. (2013). Multiresistant Staphylococcus intermedius isolated from otitis externa in dogs and them human owners -A practical approach. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol. 7(20): 1351-1356. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPP2013.3450
  4. Parmar, J.J., Rao, N., Shah, A.I., Sadhu, D.B., Bhanderi, B.B., Pate,l D.M. (2020). Clinical studies on ear infections, microbiological evaluation and therapeutic management in canines. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 9(1): 1496-1501. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2020.901.167
  5. Taylor, M.A., Coop, R.L., Wall, R.L. (2007). Chapter 6: Parasites of dogs and cats. In: Veterinary parasitology, 3rd edition (pp. 356-458). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  6. Salib, F., Baraka, T.A. (2011). Epidemiology, genetic divergence and acaricides of Otodectes cynotis in cats and dogs. Vet World. 4, 109-112. https://doi.org/10.5455/vetworld.2011.109-112
  7. Cole, L.K. (2004). Otoscopic evaluation of the ear canal. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 34(2): 397-410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2003.10.004 PMid:15062615
  8. Gotthelf, L.N. (2004). Diagnosis and treatment of otitis media in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 34(2): 469-487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2003.10.007 PMid:15062620
  9. Sula, M.M., Njaa, B.L., Payton, M.E. (2013). Histologic characterization of the cat middle ear sickness and in health. Veterinary Pathol. 51(5): 951-967. https://doi.org/10.1177/0300985813511125 PMid:24280942
  10. Rosychuk, R.A.W. (2017). Otitis media in cats. Practical Otitis Workshop of the European Society of Veterinary Dermatology. June, 1-3 (pp. 79-84), Vienna, Austria
  11. Foster, A., Morandi, F., May, E. (2014). Prevalence of ear disease in dogs undergoing multidetector thin-slice computed tomography of the head. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 58(1): 18-24. https://doi.org/10.1111/vru.12180 PMid:25046431
  12. Angus, J.C., Lichtensteiger, C., Campbell, K.L., Schaeffer, D.J. (2002). Breed variations in histologic features of chronic severe otitis externa in dogs: 80 cases (1995-2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 221(7): 1000-1006. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2002.221.1000 PMid:12369678
  13. Saridomichelakis, M.N., Farmaki, R., Leontides, L.S., Koutinas, A.F. (2007). Aetiology of canine otitis externa: a retrospective study of 100 cases. Vet Dermatol. 18(5): 341-347. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3164.2007.00619.x PMid:17845622
  14. Stephan, F., Saade, D., Nasser, M. (2019). The importance of video otoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic otitis in dogs. Rev Vet Clin. 54(3-4): 95-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anicom.2019.09.008
  15. Bloom, P. (2013). Diagnosis and management of otitis in the real world. WSAVA World Congress Proceedings. March, (pp. 6-9), Auckland, New Zealand.
  16. Kennis, R.A. (2012). Feline otitis: diagnosis and treatment. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 43(1): 51-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2012.09.009 PMid:23182324
  17. Arican, M. (2011). Chapter 2: Radiographic evaluation of the head and neck. In: Veterinary general radiology and atlas of diagnostic radiography for cat, dog (pp. 37-90). Konya: Bahcivanlar Inc. [In Turkish]
  18. Rohleder, J.J., Jones, J.C., Duncan, R.B., Larson, M.M., Waldron, D.L., Tromblee, T. (2006). Comparative performance of radiography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of middle ear disease in 31 dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 47(1): 45-52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8261.2005.00104.x PMid:16429984
  19. Doust, R., King, A., Hammond, G., Cave, T., Weinrauch, S., Mellor, D., Sullivan, M. (2007). Assessment of middle ear disease in the dog: a comparison of diagnostic imaging modalities. JSAP. 48(4): 188-192. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-5827.2007.00295.x PMid:17381763
  20. King, A.M., Weinrauch S.A., Doust, R., Hammond, G., Yam, P.S., Sullivan, M. (2007). Comparison of ultrasonography, radiography and a single computed tomography slice for fluid identification within the feline tympanic bulla. Vet J. 173(3): 638-644. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.02.003 PMid:16580850
  21. Tang, F.L., Yang, H.Q., Ma, X.W., Lu, D.Z. (2019). Epidemiological analysis of ear diseases in 221 dogs in northwest of China. bioRxiv, 541516. https://doi.org/10.1101/541516
  22. Usui, R., Usui, R., Fukuda, M. (2009). Obstruction of ear canals in an American Cocker Spaniel successfully treated using a video otoscope. Jap J Vet Dermatol. 15(4): 207-210. https://doi.org/10.2736/jjvd.15.207
  23. Remedios, A.M., Fowler, J.D., Pharr, J.W. (1991). A comparison of radiographic versus surgical diagnosis of otitis media. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 27(2): 183-188.
  24. Hoskinson, J.J. (1993). Imaging techniques in the diagnosis of middle ear disease. Semin Vet Med Surg Small Anim. 8(1): 10-16.
  25. Love, N.E., Kramer, R.W., Spodnick, G.J., Thrall, D.E. (1995). Radiographic and computed tomographic evaluation of otitis media in the dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 36(5): 375-379. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8261.1995.tb00279.x


Copyright

© 2021 Parlak K. This is an open-access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Citation Information

Macedonian Veterinary Review. Volume 44, Issue 1, Pages 95-101, e-ISSN 1857-7415, p-ISSN 1409-7621, DOI: 10.2478/macvetrev-2021-0013, 2021