Original Scientific Article
Allele and genotype frequencies of the κappa-casein (CSN3) locus in macedonian holstein-friesian cattle
Nikola Adamov*,
Branko Atanasov,
Ksenija Ilievska,
Martin Nikolovski,
Monika Dovenska,
Vladimir Petkov,
Toni Dovenski

Mac Vet Rev 2020; 43 (1): 45 - 54


Received: 15 October 2019

Received in revised form: 13 January 2020

Accepted: 26 January 2020

Available Online First: 06 February 2020

Published on: 15 March 2020

Correspondence: Nikola Adamov, adamovn@fvm.ukim.edu.mk


The bovine kappa-casein (κ-CN) is a phospho-protein with 169 amino acids encoded by the CSN3 gene. The two most common gene variants in the HF breed are CSN3*A and CSN3*B while CSN3*E has been found with lower frequency. The aim of this study was to optimize a laboratory method for genotyping of these three alleles as well as to determine their genotype and allele frequencies in the HF cattle population in the Republic of North Macedonia. Genomic DNA was extracted from full blood from 250 cows. The target DNA sequence was amplified with newly designed pair of primers and the products were subjected to enzymatic restriction with HindIII and HaeIII endonucleases. Genotype determination was achieved in all animals. The primers successfully amplified a fragment of 458 bp and the digestion of this fragment with both endonucleases enabled differentiation of five different genotypes with the following observed frequencies: AA (0.39), AB (0.29), BB (0.16), AE (0.10), and BE (0.06). The estimated allele frequencies were: CSN3*A (0.584), CSN3*B (0.336) and CSN3*E (0.08). The observed genotype frequencies differed significantly (P<0.01) from those that would be expected under HW equilibrium, while the fixation index (F=0.17) indicated moderate heterozygosity deficiency. Nevertheless, the CSN3*B allele was present with relatively high frequency which should be used to positively select for its carriers, since increasing its frequency could help to improve the rheological properties of the milk intended for cheese production.

Keywords: CSN3, genetic polymorphism, Holstein-Friesian cattle, kappa-casein, milk protein


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© 2020 Adamov N. This is an open-access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Citation Information

Macedonian Veterinary Review. Volume 43, Issue 1, Pages 45-54, e-ISSN 1857-7415, p-ISSN 1409-7621, DOI: 10.2478/macvetrev-2020-0013, 2020