Original Scientific Article
Morphological peculiarities of parasitic (Trichosomoides crassicauda) infection in rat urinary bladder
Vladyslav Sikora*,
Mykola Lуndіn,
Natalia Hyriavenko,
Roman Moskalenko,
Yulia Lуndіna,
Kateryna Sikora,
Ruslana Chyzhma,
Olena Diachenko,
Anatolii Romaniuk

Mac Vet Rev 2021; 44 (2): i - ix


Received: 03 February 2021

Received in revised form: 02 April 2021

Accepted: 26 April 2021

Available Online First: 02 July 2021

Published on: 15 October 2021

Correspondence: Vladyslav Sikora, v.sikora@med.sumdu.edu.ua


Trichosomoides crassicauda (T. crassicauda) is a parasite commonly localized in the urinary bladder (UB) of laboratory and wild rats. The presence of these helminths can influence the prediction of pathological changes in the UB. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to make a comprehensive study of the features of the morphological changes in the UB wall of white laboratory rats as a result of T. crassicauda infestation. The study was performed on male rats using histological (Hematoxyline-Eosin and Alcian Blue staining) and immunohistochemical (Ki-67, Hsp70, Hsp90α, CD3 and CD20) methods. T. crassicauda was detected in both urine and UB samples. Morphological changes were observed as disruption in urothelial cell stratification and insignificant proliferative and immune responses in the UB. Increased heat shock protein levels were observed which may suggest a natural body’s resistance to this parasite.

Keywords: nematode, parasite, rat, Trichosomoides crassicauda, urinary bladder


  1. Akiyama, Y., Homma, Y., Maeda, D. (2019). Pathology and terminology of interstitial cystitis/ bladder pain syndrome: A review. Histol Histopathol. 34(1): 25-32.
  2. Romaniuk, A., Sikora, V., Lyndin, M., Smiyanov, V., Sikora, V., Lyndina, Yu., Piddubnyi, et al. (2017). The features of morphological changes in the urinary bladder under combined effect of heavy metal salts. Interv Med Appl Sci. 9(2): 105-111. https://doi.org/10.1556/1646.9.2017.09 PMid:28932505
  3. Girard, B.M., Tooke, K., Vizzard, M.A. (2017). PACAP/Receptor system in urinary bladder dysfunction and pelvic pain following urinary bladder inflammation or stress. Front Syst Neurosci. 11, 90. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2017.00090 PMid:29255407 PMCid:PMC5722809
  4. De Groat, W.C., Yoshimura, N. (2015). Anatomy and physiology of the lower urinary tract. Handb Clin Neurol. 130, 61-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63247-0.00005-5 PMid:26003239
  5. Fry, C.H., Vahabi, B. (2016). The role of the mucosa in normal and abnormal bladder function. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 119(S3): 57-62. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.12626 PMid:27228303 PMCid:PMC5555362
  6. Cunha, G., Overland, M., Li, Y., Cao, M., Shen, J., Sinclair, A., Baskin, L. (2016). Methods for studying human organogenesis. Differentiation 91(4-5): 10-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diff.2015.10.005 PMid:26585195 PMCid:PMC4866906
  7. Choudhary, M., Asselt, E., Mastrigt, R., Clavica, F. (2015). Neurophysiological modeling of bladder afferent activity in the rat overactive bladder model. J Physiol Sci. 65(4): 329-338. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12576-015-0370-y PMid:25782438 PMCid:PMC4477068
  8. Wu, L., Zhang, X., Xiao, N., Huang, Y., Kavran, M., Elrashidy, R.A., Wang, M., et al. (2016). Functional and morphological alterations of the urinary bladder in type 2 diabetic FVB(db/db) mice. J Diabetes Complications. 30(5): 778-785. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.03.003 PMid:27037041 PMCid:PMC4912852
  9. Merrill, L., Gonzalez, E.J., Girard, B.M., Vizzard, M.A. (2016). Receptors, channels, and signalling in the urothelial sensory system in the bladder. Nat Rev Urol. 13(4): 193-204. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrurol.2016.13 PMid:26926246 PMCid:PMC5257280
  10. Andersson, K.E., McCloskey, K.D. (2014). Lamina propria: the functional center of the bladder? Neurourol Urodyn. 33(1): 9-16. https://doi.org/10.1002/nau.22465 PMid:23847015
  11. Sobolev, V.E., Jenkins, R.O., Goncharov, N.V. (2017). Sulfated glycosaminoglycans in bladder tissue and urine of rats after acute exposure to paraoxon and cyclophosphamide. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 69(6): 339-347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2017.02.007 PMid:28259532
  12. Veranic, P., Jezernik, K. (2006). The cytokeratins of urinary bladder epithelial cells. Asian J Cell Biol. 1(1): 1-8. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajcb.2006.1.8
  13. Matuszewski, M.A., Tupikowski, K., Dołowy, L., Szymańska, B., Dembowski, J., Zdrojowy, R. (2016). Uroplakins and their potential applications in urology. Cent European J Urol. 69(3): 252-257.
  14. Rothenburger, J.L., Himsworth, C.G., La Perle, K.M.D., Leighton, F.A., Nemeth, N.M., Treuting, P.M., Jardine, C.M. (2019). Pathology of wild Norway rats in Vancouver, Canada. J Vet Diagn Invest. 31(2): 184-199. https://doi.org/10.1177/1040638719833436 PMid:30852980 PMCid:PMC6838826
  15. Najafi, F., Ghadikolai, M., Naddaf, S., Hasanpour, H., Mobedi, I., Mowlavi, G. (2017). Trichosomoides crassicauda infection in laboratory rats with histopathological description in the bladder tissue. JoMMID. 5(1-2): 31-34. https://doi.org/10.29252/JoMMID.
  16. Bahrami, S., Rezaei, A., Alborzi, A.R. (2014). Trichosomoides crassicauda infection in wistar rats. Arch. Razi Inst. 69(1): 63-67.
  17. Ozkorkmaz, E.G. (2011). Microscopic investigations in a diabetic rat urinary bladder infected with Trichosomoides crassicauda. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 60(4): 261-265. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmicro/dfr012 PMid:21454343
  18. Al-Humaid, F., Mahmoud, O.M., Haroun, E.M., Magzoub, M., Al-Qarawi, A.A., Omer, O.H., Sulman, A. (1999). Trichosomoides crassicauda infection in Wistar rats. J King Saud Univ. 2(2): 105-111.
  19. Flynn, R.J. (1973). Parasites of laboratory animals. 1st ed. Iowa State University Press: Ames
  20. Serakides, R., Ribeiro, A.F.C., Silva, C.M., Santos, R.L., Nunes, V.A., Nascimento, E.F. (2001). Proliferative and inflammatory changes in the urinary bladder of female rats naturally infected with Trichosomoides crassicauda: reports of 48 cases. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec. 53(2): 198-202. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352001000200012
  21. Suvarna, K., Layton, C., Bancroft, J. (2018). Bancroft’s theory and practice of histological techniques. 8th ed. New York: Elsevier
  22. Romaniuk, A., Lyndina, Yu., Sikora, V., Lyndin, M., Karpenko, L., Gladchenko, O., Masalitin, I. (2016). Structural features of bone marrow. Interv Med Appl Sci. 8(3): 121-126. https://doi.org/10.1556/1646.8.2016.3.3 PMid:28203394 PMCid:PMC5283759
  23. Lytvynenko, M., Bocharova, T., Zhelezniakova, N., Narbutova, T., Gargin, V. (2017). Cervical transformation in alcohol abuse patients. Georgian Med News. 271, 12-17.
  24. Iliev, P.T., Georgiev, G.Z., Kirkova, Z.T., Chakarova, B.G. (2017). A survey of helminth infections in the black rat from Stara Zagora District, Bulgaria. Mac Vet Rev. 40(2): 177-182. https://doi.org/10.1515/macvetrev-2017-0021
  25. Ishida, K., Hsieh, M.H. (2018). Understanding urogenital schistosomiasis-related bladder cancer: An update. Front Med (Lausanne). 5, 223. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2018.00223 PMid:30159314 PMCid:PMC6104441
  26. Yokogawa, S. (1920). On the migratory course of Trichosomoides crassicauda (Bellingham) in the body of the final host. J Parasitol. 7(2): 80-84. https://doi.org/10.2307/3270959
  27. Tijjani, M., Majid, R.A., Abdullahi, S.A., Unyah, N.Z. (2020). Detection of rodent-borne parasitic pathogens of wild rats in Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia: A potential threat to human health. Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 11, 174-182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2020.01.008 PMid:32099788 PMCid:PMC7031134
  28. McClelland, E.E., Smith, J.M. (2011). Gender specific differences in the immune response to infection. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 59(3): 203-213. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00005-011-0124-3 PMid:21442309
  29. Klein, S.L. (2004). Hormonal and immunological mechanisms mediating sex differences in parasite infection. Parasite Immunol. 26(6-7): 247-264. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0141-9838.2004.00710.x PMid:15541029
  30. Bone, J.F., Harr, J.R. (1967). Trichosomoides crassicauda infection in laboratory rats. Lab Anim Care. 17(3): 321-326.
  31. O’Brien, V.P., Hannan, T.J., Schaeffer, A.J., Hultgren, S.J. (2015). Are you experienced? Understanding bladder innate immunity in the context of recurrent urinary tract infection. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 28(1): 97-105. https://doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000130 PMid:25517222 PMCid:PMC4365976
  32. Gonzalez, E.J., Arms, L., Vizzard, M.A. (2014). The role(s) of cytokines/chemokines in urinary bladder inflammation and dysfunction. Biomed Res Int. 2014, 120525. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/120525 PMid:24738044 PMCid:PMC3971501
  33. Romaniuk, A., Lyndin, M., Sikora, V., Lyndina, Y., Panasovska, K. (2015). Histological and immunohistochemical features of medullary breast cancer. Folia Med Cracov. 55(2): 41-48.
  34. Sui, X., Lei, L., Chen, L., Xie, T., Li, X. (2017). Inflammatory microenvironment in the initiation and progression of bladder cancer. Oncotarget 8(54): 93279-93294. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.21565 PMid:29190997 PMCid:PMC5696263
  35. Kozko, V.M., Bondarenko, A.V., Gavrylov, A.V., Shevchenko, O.S., Gargin, V.V. (2017). Pathomorphological peculiarities of tuberculous meningoencephalitis associated with HIV infection. Interv Med Appl Sci. 9(3): 144-149. https://doi.org/10.1556/1646.9.2017.31 PMid:29201438 PMCid:PMC5700704
  36. Romaniuk, A., Sikora, V., Lуndіna, Yu., Lyndin, M., Hyriavenko, N., Sikora, V., Karpenko, L., et al. (2019). Effect of heavy metals on the readaptive processes in the urinary bladder. BJMS. 18(1): 100-106. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjms.v18i1.39558
  37. Radović, S., Vukobrat-Bijedić, Z., Selak, I., Babić, M. (2006). Expression of p53, bcl-2, and Ki-67 proteins in the inflammatory regenerative and dysplastic epithelial lesions of flat colonic mucosa. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 6(1): 39-45. https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2006.3208 PMid:16533178
  38. Tiwari, S., Thakur, R., Shankar, J. (2015). Role of heat-shock proteins in cellular function and in the biology of fungi. Biotechnol Res Int. 2015, 132635. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/132635 PMid:26881084 PMCid:PMC4736001
  39. Ikwegbue, P.C., Masamba, P., Oyinloye, B.E., Kappo, A.P. (2017). Roles of heat shock proteins in apoptosis, oxidative stress, human inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 11(1): 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph11010002 PMid:29295496 PMCid:PMC5874698
  40. Jarzab, M., Kowal, M., Bal, W., Oczko-Wojciechowska, M., Rembak-Szynkiewicz, J., Kowalska, M., Stobiecka, E., et al. (2016). Ratio of proliferation markers and HSP90 gene expression as a predictor of pathological complete response in breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 54(4): 202-209. https://doi.org/10.5603/FHC.a2016.0026 PMid:28051275


© 2021 Sikora V. This is an open-access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Citation Information

Macedonian Veterinary Review. Volume 44, Issue 2, Pages i-ix, e-ISSN 1857-7415, p-ISSN 1409-7621, DOI: 10.2478/macvetrev-2021-0019, 2021