Original Scientific Article
The safety profile of the anesthetic effect of alfaxalone and its interaction with xylazine and ketamine in chick’s model (Gallus gallus domesticus)
Amjed Najem Alatrushi,
Ahmed Salah Naser*

Mac Vet Rev 2021; 44 (2): 203 - 209


Received: 18 February 2021

Received in revised form: 07 August 2021

Accepted: 12 August 2021

Available Online First: 06 September 2021

Published on: 15 October 2021

Correspondence: Ahmed Salah Naser, ahmadphd0@gmail.com


The objective of our research was to estimate the therapeutic index and assess the interaction of alfaxalone (IP) with ketamine or xylazine (IM) in chicks by using isobolographic analysis. The up-and-down technique was involved to calculate the median effective anesthetic dosages (ED50) of alfaxalone, xylazine, and ketamine given separately or at the same time in young chicks. Then the up-and-down technique was involved to estimate the median lethal dosage (LD50) of alfaxalone (IP) to determine the safety profile. The ED50 of all anesthetics was evaluated isobolographically to assess the type of interaction between alfaxalone and xylazine or alfaxalone and ketamine. The alfaxalone ED50 was 32.88 mg/kg (IP), whereas the LD50 was 102.40 mg/kg (IP). The ED50 values for alfaxalone, ketamine, and xylazine were 32.88, 12.24, and 2.45 mg/kg, respectively. The ED50 values of alfaxalone with ketamine or xylazine (25:25 ED50 values) were: 7.39+2.35, and 8.61+0.63 mg/kg, respectively. ED50 values were decreased when the combinations of alfaxalone/ketamine or alfaxalone/xylazine were administered by 22-21% and 26-25%, respectively. The anesthesia of chicks with alfaxalone is safe, produces a surgical stage of anesthesia, and can be used for minor surgical procedures. The use of alfaxalone with ketamine or xylazine has been shown to have a synergistic effect and these findings may be of clinical relevance in poultry or may be extended to mammals following further clinical trials.

Keywords: alfaxalone, isobolographic analysis, therapeutic index, chicks, anesthesia


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© 2021 Alatrushi A.N. This is an open-access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Citation Information

Macedonian Veterinary Review. Volume 44, Issue 2, Pages 203-209, e-ISSN 1857-7415, p-ISSN 1409-7621, DOI: 10.2478/macvetrev-2021-0025, 2021