Original Scientific Article
Assessment of standing and recumbent restraint positions and the significance of rumenotomy techniques based on the profiles of serum amyloid A in Kano Brown goats
Correspondence: Abubakar M. Saidu, email@example.com
Received: 25 June 2021
Received in revised form: 30 January 2022
Accepted: 31 January 2022
Available Online First: 23 February 2022
Published on: 15 March 2022
Standing and lateral recumbency positions have been used as a standard approach for most surgical procedures for large and small ruminants, respectively, without appropriate attention to the associated surgical stress. The study aimed to assess the level of surgical stress in Kano Brown goats (KBGs) based on their serum amyloid A (SAA) profiles by undergoing rumenotomy in lateral recumbency (Rumen Skin Clamp Fixation-RSCF and Stay Suture Rumenotomy-SSR) and a standing position restraint. A total of 24 KBGs were equally allocated by number and sex in groups A, B, C, and D. Groups A and B underwent RSCF and SSR in lateral recumbency, respectively, while group D underwent a rumenotomy in a standing position performed in a custom made mobile small ruminant surgical chute. Animals in groups A, B, and D were diagnosed with rumen foreign bodies, whereas group C was used as a control with a negative diagnosis. At 48 h post-rumenotomy, the mean SAA concentration in group B (137.88±66.87 g/L) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the value in group C (34.59±0.57 g/L). The females in group B had a significantly higher (P<0.05) mean concentration of SAA at 48 hours (210.15±123.73 g/L) than groups C (35.18±0.08 g/L) and D (48.35±12.15 g/L). In group A, at 24 hours, SAA concentration (115.61±20.96 μg/L) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of group B (31.51±2.59 μg/L) and group C (34.86±3.21 μg/L) in males. Rumenotomy in the standing restraint position was associated with minimal surgical stress, hence it’s recommended over the conventional lateral recumbent position techniques.
Keywords: chute-restraint, ELISA, goats, rumenotomy, serum amyloid A
- Niehaus, A.J. (2008). Rumenotomy. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 24(2): 341-347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2008.02.011 PMid:18471574
- Geehan, A.M., Amel, O.B., Shnain, H. (2006). Comparative study of two rumenotomy techniques in goats. Surg J. 1(1): 9-13.
- Dehghani, S.N., Ghadrdani, A.M. (1995). Bovine rumenotomy: comparison of four surgical techniques. Can Vet J. 36(11): 693-697.
- Amstutz, H.E. (1980). Bovine medicine and surgery. 2nd ed. California, USA: American Veterinary Publications Inc.
- Frank, E.R. (2002). Veterinary surgery. 7th ed. India: CBS Publishers and Distributors
- Martin, S., López, A.M., Morales, M., Morales, I., Tejedor-Junco, M.T., Corbera, J.A. (2021). Rumenotomy in small ruminants - a review. J Appl Anim Res. 49(1): 104-108. https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2021.1894156
- Desborough, J.P. (2000). The stress response to surgery. Br J Anaesth. 85(1): 109-117. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/85.1.109 PMid:10927999
- Taylor, S.E. (2012). Health psychology. 9th ed. Penn Plaza, New York,: McGraw-Hill Education
- Wells, B., Innocent, G.T., Eckersall, P.D., McCulloch, E., Nisbet, A.J.N., Burgess, S.T. (2013). Two major ruminant acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, as serum biomarkers during active sheep scab infestation. Vet Res. 44, 103. https://doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-44-103 PMid:24176040 PMCid:PMC3832035
- Salama, A.S., De Bondt, M., De Buck, M., Berghmans, N., Proost, P., Oliveira, V.L.S., Amaral, F.A., et al. (2020). Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) revisited: restricted leukocyte-activating properties of homogeneous SAA1. Front Immunol. 11, 843. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00843PMid:32477346 PMCid:PMC7240019
- Eckersall, P., Bell, R. (2010). Acute phase proteins: biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine. Vet J. 185(1): 23-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2010.04.009 PMid:20621712
- Kirbas, A., Kandemir, F.M., Celebi, D., Hanedan, B., Timurkan, M.O. (2019). The use of inflammatory markers as a diagnostic and prognostic approach in neonatal calves with septicaemia. Acta Vet Hung. 67(3): 360-376. https://doi.org/10.1556/004.2019.037 PMid:31549538
- Heller, M.C., Johns, J.L. (2015). Acute phase proteins in healthy goats. J Vet Diagn Invest. 27(2): 177-181. https://doi.org/10.1177/1040638715575750 PMid:25776542
- Karademir, U., Akin, I., Erdogan, H., Ural, K., Asici, G.S.E. (2016). Effect of ketoprofen on acute phase protein concentrations in goats undergoing castration. BMC Vet Res. 12, 123. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-016-0748-y PMid:27338887 PMCid:PMC4918000
- Saidu, A.M., Bokko, P.B., Mohammed, A., Bukbuk, D.N. (2016). Serum haptoglobin responses following rumenotomy in the Sahel goat. J Vet Sci Anim Husb. 4(2): 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijvsm.2016.10.008 PMid:30255035 PMCid:PMC6145042
- Saidu, A.M., Bokko, P.B., Mohammed, A. (2016). Periodic indices of serum amyloid A following rumenotomy with assorted local anaesthetics and sutures in the Sahel goat. Iran J Vet Surg. 11(2): 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijvsm.2016.10.008 PMid:30255035 PMCid:PMC6145042
- Saidu, A.M., Bokko, P.B., Mohammed, A., Bukbuk, D.N., Igwenagu, E. (2016). Serum cortisol of Sahel goats following rumenotomy with assorted anaesthetics and sutures. Int J Vet Sci Med. 4(1): 23-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijvsm.2016.10.008 PMid:30255035 PMCid:PMC6145042
- Firth, D.E.G., Fontijne, P., Kersjes, A.W., Nemeth, F.,Rutgers, L.J.E., Velden, M.A.V.D. (1985). Atlasof large animal surgery. 1th ed. Utretcht, TheNetherlands: Koninklijke Smeets Offset BV, Weert
- El-Deeb, W., Iacob, O., Fayez, M., Elgioushy, M., Shawaf, T., Ibrahim, A. (2018). Acute phase proteins, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, nitric oxide and oxidative stress markers in horses with cutaneous habronemosis under field condition. Vet Parasitol. 255, 20-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.03.023 PMid:29773131
- Tothova, C., Nagy, O., Kovac, G. (2014). Acute phase proteins and their use in the diagnosis of diseases in ruminants: a review. Vet Med. 59(4): 163-180. https://doi.org/10.17221/7478-VETMED
- Albay, M.K., Karakurum, M.C., Sahinduran, S., Sezer, K., Yildiz, R., Buyukoglu, T. (2014). Selected serum biochemical parameters and acute phase protein levels in a herd of Saanen goats showing signs of pregnancy toxaemia. Vet Med. 59(7): 336-342. https://doi.org/10.17221/7620-VETMED
- Wen, C., Chu, Y., Yeh, C., Liu, C., Yuan, H., Ko, P. (2013). Feasibility and safety of endoscopic transumbilical thoracic surgical lung biopsy: a survival study in a canine model. J Surg Res. 183(1): 47-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2012.11.058 PMid:23305995
- Freeman, L.J., Rahmani, E.Y., Sherman, S., Chiorean, M.V., Selzer, D.J., Constable, P.D., Snyder, P.W. (2009). Oophorectomy by natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery: feasibility study in dogs. Gastrointest Endosc. 69(7): 1321-1332. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2008.10.028 PMid:19249772
- Satué, K., Calvo, A., Gardón, J.C. (2013). Factors influencing serum amyloid type A (SAA) concentrations in horses. Open J Vet Med. 3(1): 58-66. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojvm.2013.31010
- Iliev, P., Georgieva, T. (2018). Acute phase proteins in sheep and goats - function, reference ranges and assessment methods: An overview. Bulg J Vet Med. 21(1): 1-16. https://doi.org/10.15547/bjvm.1050
© 2022 Saidu A.M. This is an open-access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Conflict of Interest Statement
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Macedonian Veterinary Review. Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 61-69, e-ISSN 1857-7415, p-ISSN 1409-7621, DOI: 10.2478/macvetrev-2022-0014, 2022