Original Scientific Article
Effect of modified-hen-egg-yolk-lipid-composition diet on plasma lipids in rats
Aida Hodžić ,
Husein Ohran * ,
Muhidin Hamamdžić ,
Abdulah Gagić ,
Amina Hrković-Porobija ,
Eva Pašić-Juhas ,
Amina Selimović ,
Atifa Ajanović ,
Josip Krnić

Mac Vet Rev 2023; 46 (1): 51 - 59


Received: 22 June 2022

Received in revised form: 03 February 2023

Accepted: 06 February 2023

Available Online First: 15 February 2023

Published on: 15 March 2023

Correspondence: Husein Ohran, husein.ohran@vfs.unsa.ba


This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with modified-hen-egg-yolk on plasma lipids and lipoprotein profiles in rats. During the four-week-experiment, 64 Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 16 (eight of both sexes), and fed commercial rat food (group C); food containing 70% commercial rat mixture and 30% freshly cooked egg yolk originating from laying hen eggs fed with 3% fish oil (group F); 3% palm olein (group P), or 3% lard (group L). The cooked egg yolk in the rat diet affected the concentrations of plasma total and LDL-cholesterol in males of the P and L groups. Cholesterol and total fat in the diet did not have a hypercholesterolemic effect on their own, but when in combination with fatty acid composition, they could contribute to an increase in plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in rats. HDL-cholesterol was the most resilient plasma lipoprotein of rats to dietary treatments in our experiment. Compared to the control group, the addition of hen egg yolk to the rat diet regardless of its quality, adversely affected the values of HDL-C/TC and HDL-C/LDL-C in both males and females.

Keywords: egg yolk, plasma lipids, rat, dietary supplementation, hen


1.Isdadiyanto, S., Sitasiwi, A.J., Mardiati, S.M. (2020). The lipid profile of rats (Rattus norvegicus L.) induced by high fat ration after exposed to ethanolic neem (Azadirazchta indica) leaf extract. J Phys Conf Ser. 1524, 012126. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1524/1/012126
2. Bogoriani, N.W., Ariati, N.K. (2018). The activity of Bali Andong rhizome extract of Cordyline terminalis Kunth as a hypolipidemic agent in Wistar rats with high-cholesterol diets. eIJPPR 8(1): 75-80.
3. Wu, J.H., Micha, R., Mozaffarian, D. (2019). Dietary fats and cardiometabolic disease: mechanisms and effects on risk factors and outcomes. Nat Rev Cardiol. 16(10): 581-601. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41569-019-0206-1 PMid:31097791
4. Siri-Tarino, P.W., Sun, Q., Hu, F.B., Krauss, R.M. (2010). Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 91(3): 502-509. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.26285 PMid:20089734 PMCid:PMC2824150
5. Bos, M.B., de Vriesa, J.H.M., Feskensa, E.J.M., van Dijka, S.J., Hoelenc, D.W.M., Siebelinka, E., Heijligenbergc, R., de Groot, L.C.P.G.M. (2010). Effect of a high monounsaturated fatty acids diet and a Mediterranean diet on serum lipids and insulin sensitivity in adults with mild abdominal obesity. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 20(8): 591-598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2009.05.008 PMid:19692213
6. Kromhout, D., de Goede, J. (2014). Update on cardiometabolic health effects of ω-3 fatty acids. Curr Opin Lipidol. 25(1): 85-90. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOL.0000000000000041 PMid:24345990
7. Siri-Tarino, P.W., Sun, Q., Hu, F.B., Krauss, R.M. (2010). Saturated fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease: modulation by replacement nutrients. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 12(6): 384-390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11883-010-0131-6 PMid:20711693 PMCid:PMC2943062
8. Kapoor, B., Kapoor, D., Gautam, S., Singh, R., Bhardwaj, S. (2021). Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): Uses and potential health benefits. Curr Nutr Rep. 10(3): 232-242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13668-021-00363-3 PMid:34255301
9. Saini, R.K., Keum, Y.S. (2018). Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: dietary sources, metabolism, and significance - a review. Life Sci. 203, 255-267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.04.049 PMid:29715470
10. Jiang, Z., Sim, J.S. (1993). Consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched eggs and changes in plasma lipids of human subjects. Nutrition 9(6): 513-518.
11. Simopoulos, A.P. (1999). New products from the agri-food industry: the return of n-3 fatty acids into the food supply. Lipids 34(S1Part3): S297-S301. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02562324 PMid:10419184
12. Lewis, N.M., Seburg, S., Flanagan, N.L. (2000). Enriched eggs as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for humans. Poult Sci. 79(7): 971-974. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/79.7.971 PMid:10901195
13. FAO (2010). Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition. Report of an expert consultation. FAO FAO Food Nutr Pap. 91, 1-166.
14. Franczyk-Zarow, M., Kostogrys, R., Szymczyk, B., Jawien, J., Gajda, M., Cichocki, T., Wojnar, L., Chlopicki, S., Pisulewski, P. (2008). Functional effects of eggs, naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid, on the blood lipid profile, development of atherosclerosis and composition of atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein E and low-density lipoprotein receptor double-knockout mice (apoE/ LDLR−/−). Br J Nutr. 99(1): 49-58. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507793893 PMid:17678565
15. Airaodion, A.I., Ngwogu, A.C., Ekenjoku, J.A., Ngwogu, K.O. (2019). Egg yolk causes high blood pressure in Wistar rats. J BioSci Biotechnol. 11(11): 94-99. 
16. Bogoriani, N.W., Putra, A.A.B., Heltyani, W.E. (2019). The effect of intake duck egg yolk on body weight, lipids profile and atherosclerosis diseases in male wistar rats. IJPSR 10(2): 926-932.
17. Hodzic, A., Hamamdzic, M., Gagic, A., Mihaljevic, M., Vegara, M., Krnic, J., Pasic-Juhas, E. (2008). The influence of dietary palm olein, fish oil and lard on the egg yolk and plasma lipid composition and performances of laying hens. Pol J Vet Sci. 11(1): 1-7. 
18. Hodzic, A., Hamamdzic, M., Gagic, A., Crnkic, C., Kadric, M., Pasic-Juhas, E., Krnic, J., Hrkovic, A. (2012). Lipid composition of liver in rats fed diets supplemented with egg yolks of modified composition. Acta Vet. 62 (4): 455-466. https://doi.org/10.2298/AVB1204455H 
19 .Friedewald, W.T., Levy, R.I., Fredrickson, D.S. (1972). Estimation of the concentration of lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 18(6): 499-502. https://doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/18.6.499 PMid:4337382
20. Adamopoulos, P.N., Papamichael, C.M., Zampelas, A., Moulopoulos, S.D. (1996). Cholesterol and unsaturated fat diets influence lipid and glucose concentrations in rats. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 113 (3): 659-663. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0491(95)02078-0 PMid:8829815 
21. Yu, Z., Mao, C., Fu, X., Ma, M. (2019). High density lipoprotein from egg yolk (EYHDL) improves dyslipidemia by mediating fatty acids metabolism in high fat diet-induced obese mice. Food Sci Anim Resour. 39(2): 179-196. https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2018.e38 PMid:31149661 PMCid:PMC6533406
22. Yang, F., Ma, M., Xu, J., Yu, X., Qiu, N. (2012). An egg-enriched diet attenuates plasma lipids and mediates cholesterol metabolism of high-cholesterol fed rats. Lipids 47(3): 269-277. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-011-3646-x PMid:22234516
23. Liu, A.G., Ford, N.A., Hu, F.B., Zelman, K.M., Mozaffarian, D., Kris-Etherton, P.M. (2017). A healthy approach to dietary fats: understanding the science and taking action to reduce consumer confusion. Nutr J. 16, 53.  
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-017-0271-4 PMid:28854932 PMCid:PMC5577766
24. Chen, X., Du, Y., Boni, G.F., Liu, X., Kuanga, Genga, Z. (2019). Consuming egg yolk decreases body weight and increases serum HDL and brain expression of TrkB in male SD rats. J Sci Food Agric. 99(8): 3879-3885.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9610 PMid:30680735
25. Fernandez-Robredo, P., Rodriguez, J.A., Sadabaa, L.M., Recaldea, S., Garcia-Layana, A. (2008). Egg yolk improves lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and retinal abnormalities in a murine model of genetic hypercholesterolemia. J Nutr Biochem. 19(1): 40-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2006.12.020 PMid:17531457
26. Grundy, S.M., Denke, M.A. (1990). Dietary influences on serum lipids and lipoproteins. J Lipid Res. 31(7): 1149-1172. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2275(20)42625-2 PMid:2205699
27. Aguila, M.B., Loureiro, C.C., Pinheiro, A.R., Mandarim-de-Lacerda, C.A. (2002). Lipid metabolism in rats fed diets containing different types of lipids. Arq Bras Cardiol. 78(1): 32-38. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0066-782X2002000100003 PMid:11826345
28. Farrell, D.J. (1993). Enrichment of hen eggs with n-3 long-chain fatty acids and evaluation of enriched eggs in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 68(3): 538-544. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/68.3.538 PMid:9734728
29. Yashodhara, B.M., Umakanth, S., Pappachan, J.M., Bhat, S.K., Kamath, R., Choo, B.H. (2009). Omega-3 fatty acids: A comprehensive review of their role in health and disease. Postgrad Med J. 85(1000): 84-90.  https://doi.org/10.1136/pgmj.2008.073338 PMid:19329703
30. Dreon, D.M., Vranizan, K.M., Krauss, R.M., Austin, M.A., Wood, P.D. (1990). The effect of polyunsaturated fat vs monounsaturated fat on plasma lipoproteins. JAMA 263(18): 2462-2466.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.263.18.2462 PMid:2329634
31. Harris, W.S., Dayspring, T.D., Moran, T.J. (2013). Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new developments and applications. Postgrad Med. 125(6): 100-113. https://doi.org/10.3810/pgm.2013.11.2717 
32. Kuang, H., Yang, F., Zhang, Y., Wang, T., Chen, G. (2018). The impact of egg nutrient composition and its consumption on cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol 2018: 6303810. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6303810 
PMid:30210871 PMCid:PMC6126094


© 2023 Hodžić A. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors declared that they have no potential lict of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Citation Information

Macedonian Veterinary Review. Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 51-59, e-ISSN 1857-7415, p-ISSN 1409-7621, DOI: 10.2478/macvetrev-2023-0013, 2023