Original Scientific Article
Investigation of vitamin A and 25(OH)D3 levels in cattle with pneumonia detected Mycoplasma bovis
Pelin Fatoş Polat Dinçer * ,
Zeynep Yerlikaya ,
Burcu Karagülle

Mac Vet Rev 2023; 46 (1): 69 - 77


Received: 01 November 2022

Received in revised form: 19 February 2023

Accepted: 23 February 2023

Available Online First: 02 March 2023

Published on: 15 March 2023

Correspondence: Pelin Fatoş Polat Dinçer, pelinfatos.polat@deu.edu.tr


This study investigated the presence of Mycoplasma bovis in nasal swabs taken from cattle with pneumonia, to reveal the clinical and biochemical findings of positive animals, and determine the levels of vitamin A and 25(OH)D3. In the study were included 103 infected cattle and 10 healthy cattle, all aged 1-4 years, as the control group. Quantitative clinical evaluations and clinical examinations were performed on each animal, and 5 ml blood samples and nasal swabs were taken. Serum biochemistry, vitamin A and 25(OH)D3 levels were determined in both positive and control samples. The clinical signs were identified by qualitative scoring in M. bovis positive animals. Regarding the clinical findings, respiratory frequency, heart rate, and rectal temperature were significantly higher in positive than control group animals (p<0.001). Regarding the biochemistry findings, albumin (ALB) and glucose (GLU) levels were lower in cattle infected with M. bovis (p<0.001) whereas total protein (TP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were higher (p<0.001). While serum 25(OH)D3 levels were lower in infected animals (p<0.001), there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in serum vitamin A levels. In this study, clinical findings in cattle naturally infected with M. bovis were expressed qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, it has been revealed that the disease does not only cause lung involvement, but also causes changes in biochemical and vitamin levels. Although these parameters cannot be used as a biomarker in the diagnosis of pneumonia, they are thought to provide benefits in terms of diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis in practice.

Keywords: infectious diseases, internal medicine, Mycoplasma bovis, respiratory system, vitamin D deficiency


1. Nicholas, R.A.J., Ayling, R.D. (2003). Mycoplasma bovis: disease, diagnosis, and control. Res Vet Sci. 74(2): 105-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-5288(02)00155-8 PMid:12589733
2. Stipkovits, L., Ripley, P., Varga, J., Pálfi, V. (2000). Clinical study of the disease of calves associated with Mycoplasma bovis infection. Acta Vet Hung. 48(4): 387-395. https://doi.org/10.1556/004.48.2000.4.2 PMid:11402656
3. Sassi, F., Tamone, C., D’Amelio, P. (2018). Vitamin D: nutrient, hormone, and immunomodulator. Nutrients. 10(11): 1656. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111656 PMid:30400332 PMCid:PMC6266123
4. Norman, A.W. (2008). From vitamin D to hormone D: fundamentals of the vitamin D endocrine system essential for good health. Am J Clin Nutr. 88(2): 491S-499S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/88.2.491S PMid:18689389
5. McGill, J., Kelly, L., Guerra-Maupome, S.M., Winkley, E., Henningson, J., Narasimhan, B., Sacco, R.E. (2019). Vitamin A deficiency impairs the immune response to intranasal vaccination and RSV infection in neonatal calves. Sci Rep. 9(1): 15157. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51684-x PMid:31641172 PMCid:PMC6805856
6. Kaya, S. (2007). Beslenme Farmakolojisi [Nutritional pharmacology]. In: Kaya, S. (Ed.), Veteriner farmakoloji (pp. 234-239). Ankara: Medisan Press. [In Turkish]
7. Wong-Lee, J.G., Lovett, M. (1993). Rapid and sensitive PCR method for identification of Mycoplasma species in tissue culture. In: D.H. Persing, T.F. Smith, F.C. Tenover, T.J. White (Eds.), Diagnostic molecular microbiology principles and applications (pp. 257-260). Am Soc Microbiol Wash 
8. Kobayashi, H., Hirose, K., Worarach, A., Paugtes, P., Ito, N., Morozumi, T., Yamamoto, K. (1998). In vitro amplification of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycoplasma bovirhinis, Mycoplasma alkalescens and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium by PCR. J Vet Med Sci. 60(12): 1299-1303. https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.60.1299 PMid:9879529
9. Miles, K., McAuliffe, L., Ayling, R.D., Nicholas, R.A. (2004). Rapid detection of Mycoplasma dispar and M. bovirhinis using allele specific polymerase chain reaction protocols. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 241(1): 103-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.femsle.2004.10.010 PMid:15556716
10. Foddai, A., Idini, G., Fusco, M., Rosa, N., De la Fe, C., Zinellu, S., Corona, L., Tola, S. (2005). Rapid differential diagnosis of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis based on a multiplex-PCR and a PCR-RFLP. Mol Cell Probe. 19(3): 207-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2004.11.007 PMid:15797822
11. Timenetsky, J., Santos, L.M., Buzinhani, M., Mettifogo, E. (2006). Detection of multiple mycoplasma infection in cell cultures by PCR. Braz J Med Biol Res. 39(7): 907-914. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2006000700009 PMid:16862282
12. Nicholas, R. (2008). Mycoplasma disease of ruminants: disease, diagnosis and control. In: S. Nicholas (Ed.), Bovine respiratory disease (pp. 132-168). Oxford: CABI Publishing https://doi.org/10.1079/9780851990125.0000 
13. Maunsell, F.P., Woolums, A.R., Francoz, D., Rosenbusch, R.F., Step, D.L., Wilson, D.J., Janzen, E.D. (2011). Mycoplasma bovis infections in cattle. J Vet Intern Med. 25(4): 772-783. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.0750.x PMid:21745245
14. Kumar, P., Jain, V., Kumar, T., Kumar, V., Rana, Y. (2018). Clinical and haematobiochemical studies on respiratory disease in buffaloes. Int J Livest Res. 8(8): 178-184. https://doi.org/10.5455/ijlr.20171210043959
15. Ramadan, M., Ghanem, M., El Attar, H.E., Abdel-Raoof, Y. (2019). Evaluation of clinical and hematobiochemical alterations in naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle calves in Egypt. BVMJ 36(2): 305-313. https://doi.org/10.21608/bvmj.2019.16753.1088 
16. Baruch, J., Cernicchiaro, N., Cull, C.A., Lechtenberg, K.F., Nickell J.S., Renter, D.G. (2019). Performance of multiple diagnostic methods in assessing the progression of bovine respiratory disease in calves challenged with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus and Mannheimia haemolytica. J Anim Sci. 97(6): 2357-2367. https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skz107 PMid:30923802 PMCid:PMC6541804
17. Maier, G.U., Rowe, J.D., Lehenbauer, T.W., Karle, B.M., Williams, D.R., Champagne, J.D., Aly, S.S. (2019). Development of a clinical scoring system for bovine respiratory disease in weaned dairy calves. J Dairy Sci. 102(8): 7329-7344. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-15474 PMid:31202651
18. Hermeyer, K., Buchenau, I., Thomasmeyer, A., Baum, B., Spergser, J., Rosengarten, R., Hewicker-Trautwein, M. (2012). Chronic pneumonia in calves after experimental infection with Mycoplasma bovis strain 1067: characterization of lung pathology, persistence of variable surface protein antigens and local immune response. Acta Vet Scand. 54(1): 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1751-0147-54-9 PMid:22305416 PMCid:PMC3287114
19. Fraser, B.C., Anderson, D.E., White, B.J., Miesner, M.D., Lakritz, J., Amrine, D., Mosier, D.A. (2014). Associations of various physical and blood analysis variables with experimentally induced Mycoplasma bovis pneumonia in calves. Am J Vet Res. 75(2): 200-207. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.75.2.200 PMid:24471757
20. Šoltésová, H., Nagyová, V., Tóthová, C., Nagy, O. (2015). Haematological and blood biochemical alterations associated with respiratory disease in calves. Acta Vet Brno. 84(3): 249-256. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201584030249 
21. Gifford, C.A., Holland, B.P., Mills, R.L., Maxwell, J.K., Farney, J.K., Terrill, S.J., Step, D.L., et al. (2012). Growth and development symposium: impact of infammation on cattle growth and carcass merit. J Anim Sci. 90(5): 1438-1451. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4846 PMid:22573836
22. Civelek, T., Kav, K., Camkerten, İ., Celik, A.H., Acar, A. (2007). Effect of bacterial pneumonia inneonatal calves on serum lipids. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy. 51(4): 503-507. 
23. Mamani, M., Muceli, N., Basir, H.R.G., Vasheghani, M., Poorolajal, J. (2017). Association between serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and community-acquired pneumonia: a case-control study. Int J Gen Med. 10, 423-429. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S149049 PMid:29180888 PMCid:PMC5692194
24. Kim, H.J., Jang, J.G., Hong, K.S., Park, J.K., Choi, E.Y. (2015). Relationship between serum vitamin D concentrations and clinical outcome of community acquired pneumonia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 19(6): 729-734. https://doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.14.0696 PMid:25946368
25. El Basha, N., Mohsen, M., Kamal, M., Mehaney, D. (2014). Association of vitamin D deficiency with severe pneumonia in hospitalized children under 5 years. Comp Clin Path. 23, 1247- 1251. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-013-1770-0 
26. Tsujino, I., Ushikoshi-Nakayama, R., Yamazaki, T., Matsumoto, N., Saito, I. (2019). Pulmonary activation of vitamin D3 and preventive effect against interstitial pneumonia. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 65(3): 245-251. https://doi.org/10.3164/jcbn.19-48 PMid:31777427 PMCid:PMC6877402
27. Waters, W.R., Nonnecke, B.J., Rahner, T.E., Palmer, M.V., Whipple, D.L., Horst, R.L. (2001). Modulation of Mycobacterium bovis-specific responses of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells by 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 8(6): 1204-1212. https://doi.org/10.1128/CDLI.8.6.1204-1212.2001 PMid:11687464 PMCid:PMC96250
28. López-Constantino, S., Barragan, E.A., Alfonseca-Silva, E. (2022). Reduced levels of serum 25 (OH) D3 are associated with tuberculosis positive cattle under conditions of high natural exposure to Mycobacterium bovis. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 81,  101746.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2022.101746  PMid:35030535
29. Elnisr, N.A., Abd Ellah, M.R., Khamis, G.F. (2012). Evaluation of serum vitamin C, β-carotene and α-tocopherol status in pneumonia of camels. Comp Clin Path. 21, 1081-1085. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-011-1235-2
30. Stephensen, C.B. (2001). Vitamin A, infection, and immune function. Annu Rev Nutr.  21,  167-192. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.21.1.167  PMid:11375434   
31. Mitra, A.K., Alvarez, J.O., Wahed, M.A., Fuchs, G.J., Stephensen, C.B. (1998). Predictors of serum retinol in children with shigellosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 68(5): 1088-1094. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/68.5.1088 PMid:9808227
32. Cusack, P.M.V., McMeniman, N.P., Lean, I.J. (2008). Effects of injectable vitamins A, D, E and C on the health and growth rate of feedlot cattle destined for the Australian domestic market. Aust Vet J. 86(3): 81-87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2008.00255.x PMid:18304043


© 2023 Polat Dinçer P.F. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors declared that they have no potential lict of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Citation Information

Macedonian Veterinary Review. Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 69-77, e-ISSN 1857-7415, p-ISSN 1409-7621, DOI: 10.2478/macvetrev-2023-0015, 2023