Original Scientific Article
Immunohistochemical detection of CD3 and MAC387 antibodies in the mesenteric lymph nodes and the small intestine of 20 dogs that died of canine parvoviral enteritis
Todor Novakov ,
Ivica Gjurovski * ,
Spiro Bozinovski ,
Aleksandar Janevski ,
Nikola Adamov ,
Trpe Ristoski

Mac Vet Rev 2024; 47 (1): 59 - 64


Received: 09 January 2024

Received in revised form: 07 February 2024

Accepted: 13 February 2024

Available Online First: 29 February 2024

Published on: 15 March 2024

Correspondence: Ivica Gjurovski, igjurovski@fvm.ukim.edu.mk


There is little data on the use of the immunohistochemical method in the observation of the T lymphocytes and macrophages distribution within the mesenteric lymph nodes in canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis. The virus initially replicates in the systemic lymphoid tissue and causes highest changes in the small intestine. This current study aimed to demonstrate the CD3 and MAC387 antibodies detection and distribution in mesenteric lymph nodes and small intestines in dogs which had positive clinical, pathological, and histological findings of CPV. Twenty dogs that were clinically confirmed on CPV, had been autopsied following onset of death. Tissue samples (lymph nodes and small intestines) from each dog was processed for histology and immunohistochemistry utilizing hematoxylin-eosin and peroxidase/DAB (3,3′-diaminobenzidine) staining methods, respectively. The virus distribution was greatest in the tissue areas of the small intestine and the lymph nodes where the virus had made the most severe tissue damage. The distribution of macrophage was highest in the necrotic areas of the small intestine and the mesenteric lymph nodes. The amount of CD3 positive lymphocytes was greatly reduced in the mesenteric lymph nodes and the lymphoid tissue of the small intestine.

Keywords: immunohistochemistry, lymphocytes, macrophage, parvovirus


1. Ikejiofor, O.K., Boniface, A., Nweze, N., Danladi, M.M., Sunday, O. (2017). Canine parvovirus: a review. IJSAR. 2(2): 74-95.
2. Chen, C., Guo, X., Liang, H., Ning, B., Li, J., Zhong, S., Liu, X., Li, L. (2019). Determination of parvovirus antibodies in canine serum using magnetic bead-based chemiluminescence immunoassay. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 66(4): 586-590. https://doi.org/10.1002/bab.1758 PMid:31039295 PMCid:PMC7161764
3. Voorhees, I.E.H., Lee, H., Allison, A.B., Lopez-Astacio, R., Goodman, L.B., Oyesola, O.O., Omobowale, O., et al. (2019). Limited intrahost diversity and background evolution accompany 40 years of canine parvovirus host adaptation and spread. J Virol. 94(1): e01162-19. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01162-19 PMid:31619551 PMCid:PMC6912114
4. Cotmore, S.F., Agbandje-McKenna, M., Chiorini, J.A., Mukha, D.V., Pintel, D.J., Qiu, J., Soderlund-Venermo, M., et al. (2014). The family Parvoviridae. Arch Virol. 159(5): 1239-1247. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-013-1914-1 PMid:24212889 PMCid:PMC4013247
5. Mylonakis, M.E., Kalli, I., Rallis, T.S. (2016). Canine parvoviral enteritis: an update on the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Vet Med (Auckl). 7, 91-100. https://doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S80971 PMid:30050842 PMCid:PMC6053044
6. Pollock, R.V., Coyne, M.J. (1993). Canine parvovirus. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 23(3): 555-568. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-5616(93)50305-4 PMid:8389070
7. Novakov, T., Gjurovski, I., Bozinoski, S., Janevski, A., Atanaskova Petrova, E., Kostadinova Kunovska, S., Ristoski, T. (2023). Immunohistochemical investigation of FIPV3-70 antigen expression in the ileum of cats with effusive feline infective peritonitis. Acta Veterinaria 73, 432-438.
8. Khare, D.S., Gupta, D.K., Shukla, P.C., Das, G., Tiwari, A., Meena, N.S., Khare, R. (2019). Prevalence of canine parvovirus infection in dogs in Jabalpur (M.P.). J Entomol Zool Stud. 7(3): 1495-1498.
9.Lamm, C.G., Rezabek, G.B. (2008). Parvovirus infection in domestic companion animals. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 38(4):837-850, viii-ix. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2008.03.008 PMid:18501282
10. Flagstad, A. (1977). Feline panleukopaenia virus and mink enteritis virus. A serological study. Acta Vet Scand. 18(1): 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/BF03548459 PMid:66862 PMCid:PMC8377650
11. Gjurovski, I., Bozinovski, S., Murdzevska, E., Novakov, T., Bozkurt, M.F., Ristoski, T. (2023). Immunohistochemical diagnostic characteristics of Parvovirus infection in dogs. Mac Vet Rev. 46(2): 193-198. https://doi.org/10.2478/macvetrev-2023-0024
12. Pollock, R.V., Carmichael, L.E. (1982). Maternally derived immunity to canine parvovirus infection: transfer, decline, and interference with vaccination. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 180(1): 37-42.
13. Decaro, N., Elia, G., Martella, V., Campolo, M., Desario, C., Camero, M., Cirone, F., et al. (2006). Characterisation of the canine parvovirus type 2 variants using minor groove binder probe technology. J Virol Methods. 133(1): 92-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2005.10.026 PMid:16313976
14. Kahn, C.M., Line, S., Aiello, S.E. (2005). The Merck veterinary manual. Merck & Co. Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ
15. McAdaragh, J.P., Eustis, S.L., Nelson, D.T., Stotz, I., Kenefick, K. (1982). Experimental infection of conventional dogs with canine parvovirus. Am J Vet Res. 43(4): 693-696.
16. Brown, A.J., Otto, C.M. (2008). Fluid therapy in vomiting and diarrhea. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 38(3): 653-675, xiii. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2008.01.008 PMid:18402889
17. Mazzaferro, E.M. (2020). Update on canine parvoviral enteritis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 50(6): 1307-1325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2020.07.008 PMid:32891439 PMCid:PMC7467068
18. Appel, M., Meunier, P., Pollock, R. (1980). Canine viral enteritis, a report to practitioners. Canine Pract. 7(4): 22-36.
19. Meunier, P.C., Cooper, B.J., Appel, M.J., Lanieu, M.E., Slauson, D.O. (1985). Pathogenesis of canine parvovirus enteritis: sequential virus distribution and passive immunization studies. Vet Pathol. 22(6): 617-624. https://doi.org/10.1177/030098588502200617 PMid:3001996
20. Macartney, L., McCandlish, I.A., Thompson, H., Cornwell, H.J. (1984). Canine parvovirus enteritis 1: clinical, haematological and pathological features of experimental infection. Vet Rec. 115(9): 201-210. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.115.9.201 PMid:6091317
21. Church, M.E., Terio, K.A., Keel, M.K. (2018). Procyonidae, Viverridae, Hyenidae, Herpestidae, Eupleridae, and Prionodontidae, In: K.A. Terio, D. McAloose, J. St. Ledger (Eds). Pathology of wildlife and zoo animals (pp. 305-316). 1st ed. ELSEVIER, San Diego, USA https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-805306-5.00012-2 PMCid:PMC7148636
22. Meunier, P.C., Cooper, B.J., Appel, M.J., Slauson, D.O. (1985). Pathogenesis of canine parvovirus enteritis: the importance of viremia. Vet Pathol. 22(1): 60-71. https://doi.org/10.1177/030098588502200110 PMid:2983478
23. Goddard, A., Leisewitz, A.L. (2010). Canine parvovirus. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 40(6): 1041-1053. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2010.07.007 PMid:20933134
24. Fagbohun, O.A., Jarikre, T.A., Alaka, O.O., Adesina, R.D., Ola, O.O., Afolabi, M., Oridupa, O.A., et al. (2020). Pathology and molecular diagnosis of canine parvoviral enteritis in Nigeria: case report. Comp Clin Path. 29(4): 887-893. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-020-03127-7 PMid:35194419 PMCid:PMC8852808
25. Pollock, R.V., Carmichael, L.E. (1988). Canine viral enteritis. In: J.E. Barlough (Ed). Manual of small animal infectious diseases (pp. 101-107). New York: Churchill Livingston
26. Gonzales-Viera, O., Anderson, M., Pesavento, P. (2021). Diagnostic exercise from the latin comparative pathology group and the Davis-Thompson Foundation: parvovirus enteritis in a raccoon (Procyon lotor). Braz J Vet Pathol. 14(2): 137-141. https://doi.org/10.24070/bjvp.1983-0246.v14i2p137-141 
27. Kapil, S., Rezabek, G., Germany, B., Johnston, L. (2010). Isolation of a virus related to canine parvovirus type 2 from a raccoon (Procyon lotor). Vet Rec. 166(1): 24-25. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.b5587 PMid:20045856


© 2024 Novakov T. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors declared that they have no potential lict of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

Citation Information

Macedonian Veterinary Review. Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 59-64, e-ISSN 1857-7415, p-ISSN 1409-7621, DOI: 10.2478/macvetrev-2024-0014